(They even applaud anyone who does the same.)

For the wrath of God is being revealed

from heaven against all ungodliness and justice

of those who have silenced the truth

by their wicked ways.

For everything that could have been known about God

was clear to them:

God himself made it plain.

Because his invisible attributes –

his ever lasting power and divinity –

are made visible to reason by means

of his works since the creation of the world.

So they have no excuse,

for they knew God

and did not glorify him as was fitting,

nor did they give thanks to him.

On the contrary,

they lost themselves in their reasoning

and darkness filled their minds.

Believing themselves wise, they became foolish:

they exchange the Glory of the immortal God

for the likes of mortal human beings,



and reptiles.

Because of this God gave them up to their inner cravings;

they did shameful things

and dishonored their bodies.

They exchanged God’s truth for a lie;

they honored and worshiped created things

instead of the Creator,

to whom be praise for ever,


Because of that,

God gave them up to shameful passions:

their women exchange natural sexual relations

for unnatural ones.

Similarly the men,

giving up natural sexual relations with women,

were lustful of each other,

they did,

men with men,

shameful things,

bringing upon themselves

the punishment they deserve

for their wickedness.

And since they did not think that God was worth knowing,

he gave them up to their senseless minds

so that they committed all kinds of obscenities.

And so they are full of injustice,




they are full of jealousy,




bad will and gossip.

The commit calumny, offend God,

are haughty;

they are proud,


clever in doing evil.

They are rebellious towards their parents,




and merciless.

They know of God’s judgment which declares worthy of death anyone living in this way;

yet not only do they do all these things,

they even applaud anyone who does the same.


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